Install MongoDB 4.0.5 on Ubuntu 16.04

Add the key: (without the key, the repository will not load)

1 – sudo apt-key adv –keyserver hkp:// –recv E52529D4

Now, create a new MongoDB repository list file:

2 – sudo bash -c ‘echo “deb xenial/mongodb-org/4.0 multiverse” > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.0.list’

Complete the installation with update of repositories then install:

3 – sudo apt update
sudo apt install mongodb-org

Enable the mongod service and start it up:

4 – systemctl enable mongod.service
systemctl start mongod.service

Check your mongodb version:

5 – ~$ mongo –version
MongoDB shell version v4.0.5
git version: 3739429dd92b92d1b0ab120911a23d50bf03c412
OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.0.2g 1 Mar 2016
allocator: tcmalloc
modules: none
build environment:
distmod: ubuntu1604
distarch: x86_64
target_arch: x86_64

Check if the service is running:

6 – systemctl status mongod.service
mongod.service – MongoDB Database Server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mongod.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-01-21 00:33:51 MST; 7s ago
Main PID: 2906 (mongod)
CGroup: /system.slice/mongod.service
└─2906 /usr/bin/mongod –config /etc/mongod.conf

How to reduce disk usage size in Redshift?

Hello Everyone,

As also you know, redshift is using for DWH, and for some reason, the disk can be full 🙂

Create a superuser for those kinds of queries or login with superuser of Redshift.

Lets Start;
Execute below query for sorting table with the schema in redshift.

       TRIM( AS TABLE,
       id AS TableId,
             0, 'EVEN',
             1,det.distkey ,
       ) AS DistKey,
       ) AS Skew,
       det.head_sort AS "SortKey",
       det.n_sortkeys AS "#SKs",
       CASE WHEN pgc.reldiststyle = 8 THEN a.rows_all_dist ELSE a.rows END AS rows,
       ) AS Enc,
       ) AS pct_of_total,
       (CASE WHEN a.rows = 0 THEN NULL ELSE
          CASE WHEN pgc.reldiststyle = 8 THEN ((a.rows_all_dist - pgc.reltuples)::DECIMAL(20,3) / a.rows_all_dist::DECIMAL(20,3)*100)::DECIMAL(20,2)
                ELSE ((a.rows - pgc.reltuples)::DECIMAL(20,3) / a.rows::DECIMAL(20,3)*100)::DECIMAL(20,2) END END
       ) AS pct_stats_off,
       CASE WHEN pgc.reldiststyle = 8
          THEN decode( det.n_sortkeys,0, NULL,DECODE( a.rows_all_dist,0,0, (a.unsorted_rows_all_dist::DECIMAL(32)/a.rows_all_dist)*100))::DECIMAL(20,2)
          ELSE decode( det.n_sortkeys,0, NULL,DECODE( a.rows,0,0, (a.unsorted_rows::DECIMAL(32)/a.rows)*100))::DECIMAL(20,2) END
        AS pct_unsorted
             SUM(ROWS) AS ROWS,
             MAX(ROWS) AS rows_all_dist,
             SUM(ROWS) - SUM(sorted_rows) AS unsorted_rows,
             MAX(ROWS) - MAX(sorted_rows) AS unsorted_rows_all_dist
      FROM stv_tbl_perm a
      GROUP BY db_id,
               name) AS a
  JOIN pg_class AS pgc ON pgc.oid =
  JOIN pg_namespace AS pgn ON pgn.oid = pgc.relnamespace
  LEFT OUTER JOIN (SELECT tbl, COUNT(*) AS mbytes FROM stv_blocklist GROUP BY tbl) b ON = b.tbl
  INNER JOIN (SELECT attrelid,
                     MIN(CASE attisdistkey WHEN 't' THEN attname ELSE NULL END) AS "distkey",
                     MIN(CASE attsortkeyord WHEN 1 THEN attname ELSE NULL END) AS head_sort,
                     MAX(attsortkeyord) AS n_sortkeys,
                     MAX(attencodingtype) AS max_enc,
                     SUM(case when attencodingtype <> 0 then 1 else 0 end)::DECIMAL(20,3)/COUNT(attencodingtype)::DECIMAL(20,3)  *100.00 as pct_enc
              FROM pg_attribute
              GROUP BY 1) AS det ON det.attrelid =
                     MAX(Mbytes)::DECIMAL(32) /MIN(Mbytes) AS ratio
              FROM (SELECT tbl,
                           TRIM(name) AS name,
                           COUNT(*) AS Mbytes
                    FROM svv_diskusage
                    GROUP BY tbl,
              GROUP BY tbl,
                       name) AS dist_ratio ON = dist_ratio.tbl
  JOIN (SELECT SUM(capacity) AS total
        FROM stv_partitions
        WHERE part_begin = 0) AS part ON 1 = 1
AND   pgc.relowner > 1
-- and pgn.nspname = 'schema' -- schemaname
-- and like 'table%' -- tablename
-- and det.max_enc = 0 -- non-compressed tables

First, start you find which table is not using and remove those are.

Drop or Truncate bietltools.orders

Second, Vacuum table which is needs or you can start the size of data.

vacuum full bietltools.customer to 100 percent;

Third, It is a difficult part, encoding.


Comprows is important otherwise your disk usage will be 100 🙂

When you get the results, steps are like below;

1 - alter table bietltools.bietltools_reporting add column new_tooladded_time timestamp ENCODE zstd;

2 - update bietltools.bietltools_reporting  set new_tooladded_time =tooladded_time;

3 - alter table bietltools.bietltools_reporting drop column tooladded_time;

4 - alter table bietltools.bietltools_reporting rename column new_tooladded_time totooladded_time;

I write like bold zstd, redshift has an encoding type for every datatype, and you have to figure out and set the best encoding type for that.

One more useful query at below it means bonus;

Show databases size

select sum(mbytes)/1024 as db_size_in_gb, database from (
select trim(pgdb.datname) as Database,
trim( as Table, b.mbytes
from stv_tbl_perm a
join pg_database as pgdb on pgdb.oid = a.db_id
join (select tbl, count(*) as mbytes
from stv_blocklist group by tbl) b on
where a.slice=0
order by db_id, name)
group by database;


Welcome to the black box of AWS

What is Database (DB) ?

(1) Often abbreviated DB, a database is basically a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.

Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.


An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis.

To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.

(2) Increasingly, the term database is used as shorthand for database management system. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes.

I used referenced web site for this post :

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